Individual septic systems
serve homes and businesses and are a principle method of waste water disposal. These systems effectively return the effluent, or waste water, into the ground where it will be naturally "treated" and returned to an aquifer to be used and reused. Properly maintained septic systems impose little adverse effect on the environment. This is an important issue for property owners, considering the high costs associated with having to repair or replace old or damaged systems. Operation of a well-functioning septic system will eliminate potentially adverse effects on your property and surrounding environment.
The first component in the septic system is the septic tank. The primary purpose of the septic tank is to permit separation of solids, grease, oil and scum by sedimentation and flotation. A secondary purpose is to afford an opportunity for the removed material to "anaerobically" digest to reduce its volume, and possibly to change its character (such as breaking down grease). A third purpose of the septic tank is to provide capacity to hold a few years' accumulation of sludge, scum and, as necessary, kitchen waste solids and greases, thereby requiring pumping or cleaning only infrequently.
The second component in the septic system is the distribution network and disposal field. The disposal field accepts the effluent after it has been sent through a distribution box or header pipe which distributes it evenly to a series of perforated distribution lines, or laterals. The field allows the effluent to filter through rock and select materials (sand) where impurities and harmful microorganisms are removed.